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Runes Futhark

Runes Futhark are the ancient characters of the Germanic people. Furthermore, the name Rune is a collective term and includes characters from different alphabets in different times and regions.

On the one hand, runes can be written as symbols for one sound each, i.e. alphabetic writing, and on the other hand, they stand as symbols for the respective terms whose names they bear. They can also represent numbers or be used as magical symbols.

Runes in alphabetical script:

Runes Futhark

Runes and their terms, as well as magical derivation:

Runes Futhark

The use of runes for magical purposes:

As conceptual runes (as described above), for example, cattle, (good) year, gift, ride meant a corresponding wish for blessing; conversely, hardship, ulcer should banish a fear or to utter a curse. Many early inscriptions consist of a single word such as alu, laukaz, laþu, which are usually understood as magical formulas (“salvation”, “prosper”). Here too, the Nordic world follows ancient models; curse tablets were widespread and popular throughout classical antiquity. In the more recent Scandinavian monuments, magic runes are mentioned for specific purposes, such as Siegrunes, beer runes, mountain runes (for midwifery ), sea runes (to protect ships), rededication runes (to speak wisely), release runes (in case of captivity), runes for discussing (dulling) swords and the like.

The god of rune knowledge and rune magic is Odin. A divine song from the Song Edda tells how Odin sacrificed himself and hung upside down in the world ash tree Yggdrasil for nine days before he gained knowledge of the power of the runes and was able to free himself. As the song progresses, the magical powers of the runes are described and finally 18 magic spells are named. Another Edda song, Skirnir's Ride, illustrates a more mundane use of magical runes: to break the resistance of a refusing woman. As a suitor for the god Freyr, Skírnir threatens the giant's daughter Gerd with a permanent curse if she does not want to get involved with the god. To do this, at the end of his impressive threatening speech he scratches a Thursen (i.e. the damaging th-rune) and three of the runes: anger and restlessness and insanity, and Gerd then agrees to a rendezvous with Freyr. (Excerpt from Wikipedia)

You can find the complete verses of Odin's Havamal at https:/ /Ältere_Edda/Hâvamâl (“Odin's Rune Song”, verses 139–142) and Ljóðatal (“Magic Songs”, Verses 147–164)

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